1.First of all, sapphires are not blue stones. Gemstones are divided into sapphires and rubies, and rubies are red gems. In addition to red gems, sapphire is collectively known as sapphire. That is to say, in addition to the complete blue series, there are colorless, orange, green, black brown, pink, orange, purple, yellow like fireworks sunset, and so on. These colored stones are collectively known as sapphires. In addition to the blue corundum directly named sapphire, other colors of corundum need a color adjective in front of the name of sapphire, such as yellow sapphire, green sapphire.
2.Sapphire and ruby are sister stones. They are both corundum minerals, the hardest natural mineral on Earth after diamond. Both are based on alumina. So what is corundum mineral? Corundum, whose name comes from India, is a mineralogical name. In the mineral field, this mineral containing aluminum oxide is called corundum mineral. Corundum is also divided into gem grade, industrial grade two.Gem-grade corundum includes ruby and sapphire. Industrial grade industry is mainly used to make refractory materials. There are three variants of corundum Al2O3, namely α-Al2O3, β-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3. Corundum is second only to diamond and cubic boron nitride in hardness. Rubies and sapphires are called corundum stones.
3.Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam and Cambodia are the world's most important suppliers of high-quality rubies and sapphires. Other producers include China, Australia, the United States and Tanzania.
4.Verneuil, also known as the Verneuil process. This is how the world famous "Geneva ruby" came about. In simple terms, the method of manufacturing and cultivation is to melt the gem powder at high temperature, drop it after melting, cool and consolidate it, and gradually grow into crystals, crystal rods, broad shoulders (to expand the receiving area), and equal diameter growth.
Kyropoulos, the bubble method, uses seed crystals to grow by rotating them in a crystal solution, just like a magnet, sucking up the surrounding iron. This is also one of the mainstream cultivation methods.
Three, lifting method Czochralski, continuous feeding lifting, cold core shoulder microlifting all belong to the lifting method, which is also one of the current mainstream cultivation methods. Similar to the bubble method, seed crystals are lifted, rotated and cultivated in solution.
Heat exchange method HEM, horizontal growth method HDC, guided mode method EFG, crucible descending method VGF, these methods are similar in principle, they all use seed crystals, there are differences in the process, so they will not be discussed one by one.
5.Sapphire symbolizes loyalty, constancy, love and honesty. Also known as the "stone of destiny," Starlight sapphires keep the wearer safe and bring good luck. Sapphire is a high-grade gem, is one of the five gems, located in the diamond, ruby after the third. Sapphire is the birthstone of September and autumn, and it is known as the "sister stone" with ruby.
Sapphires, with their beautiful and crystal clear colors, were regarded as auspicious by ancient people with mysterious and supernatural colors. Dating back to ancient Egypt, ancient Greece and Rome, it was used to decorate mosques, churches and monasteries, and as a ritual tribute. Along with diamonds and pearls, it became an indispensable accessory to the crowns and gowns of Kings of the British Empire and czars of Russia. Sapphire has been one of the five most precious stones in the world since gemstones were introduced into the people's society in the past hundred years.
World gemology defines sapphire as the birthstone of September. The Japanese chose it as a precious souvenir of their 23rd wedding anniversary (sapphire) and 26th wedding anniversary (starlight sapphire).
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