Sapphire glass is an application of synthetic sapphire generally produced by subjecting aluminum oxide powder under extreme heat and pressure. Further heat treatment removes internal stresses before processing into thin sheets. The resulting output is a transparent material that is more durable than standard glass. Take note that a synthetic sapphire has the same physical properties as naturally-occurring sapphire.
Although sapphires are blue in color, a sapphire glass is highly transparent to wavelengths of light between 150 nanometers and 5500 nanometers. This range gives the material a very wide optical transmission band from ultraviolet to near-infrared.
It is worth mentioning that the human eye can only discern wavelengths between 380 nanometers and 750 nanometers. In other words, a sapphire glass passes the most basic requirement of an ideal screen: light should pass through it, and an individual should clearly see through it.
But the real advantage of sapphire glass lies in its extraordinary hardness. The material is nearly twice as hard as standard glass, and it is almost as hard as a diamond. For a quick reference, the sapphire has a value of 9, while a diamond has a value of 10 under the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. This means that sapphire glass is almost resistant to scratch unless it will come in direct and hard abrasive contact with a diamond.
HOW DOES IT WORK?
Flow-control valves in hydraulic systems are generally used to regulate the pressure in the flow rate of either gases or liquids as they travel through a pipeline.
Flow-control valves are extremely important for optimizing the performance of the system, so choosing the right valve for the job is likewise crucial: a flow-control valve manages the flow rate in any given portion of a system of hydraulic circuitry.
Within a hydraulic system, a flow-control valve will be used to control the rate of flow to hydraulic cylinders and motors, which in turn will impact the speed of both of those devices.
Hydraulic flow-control valves also have a secondary function of managing the energy transfer rate at a specified pressure. The most common kinds of hydraulic flow-control valves include the following designs: needle, diaphragm, butterfly, plug, and ball.
The simplest design for any flow-control valve will be one that has an aperture that can be opened or closed for the purpose of managing the flow rate. Ball valves are some of the simplest types of flow-control options, and these consist of a ball that is attached to a simple handle.
Since the ball has a hole through its center, when the handle is turned, the ball’s hole is aligned with valve openings so that fluid-stream becomes possible.
When it’s desired to reduce or shut off the flow, this handle can be used to position the ball perpendicular to all of the valve openings, which effectively blocks the fluid. Most other flow-control valves operate in a similar way, i.e. they provide some mechanism for either allowing flow to take place or blocking it.
When assembling hydraulic circuitry, there are a number of options possible for controlling flow, and these can range from the very basic to ultra-sophisticated controls managed by electronics. The most complex of these options are able to detect pressure changes and make appropriate responses, or they are capable of monitoring flow rate and making the correct response when that rate goes beyond a predefined threshold.
ZMSH is the premier spherical sapphire lens manufacturer in China. Our optical lens components are manufactured by JINGJING Tech to the exact specifications needed for your application. Sapphire is an extremely durable and scratch resistant substrate which creates a rugged optical lens that can stand up to very harsh environments. Sapphire lenses will add to the long lasting value of your project or product. Perhaps you are constantly replacing your product’s glass lenses due to damage. Consider replacing them with sapphire from us.
|Diameter||0.5 to 350mm|
|Diameter Tolerance||±0.05 mm (Standard), up to +0.000/-0.002 mm|
|Thickness tolerance||±0.05 mm (Standard), up to +/-0.0.1mm|
|Surface Quality||60-40 S/D (Standard), up to 10-5S/D|
|Surface Figure||λ/4 or λ/10|
|Centration||1 Minute or 30 Second|
|Coating||uncoated, AR and HR|